Gentrifikasi : Dampak Sosial-Ekonomi Pembangunan Hotel di Malioboro, Kota Yogyakarta.

Hardian Wahyu Widianto, Yeremias Torontuan Keban

Abstract

Gentrifikasi atau pembangunan masif properti yang khusus ditujukan hanya untuk pekerja kerah putih atau fungsi komersil seperti apartemen dan hotel di Yogyakarta memicu perlawanan publik. Sebagai salah satu masalah urban di era modern, dampak gentrifikasi di Indonesia belum diteliti secara mendalam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisi celah tersebut, menggunakan studi kasus gentrifikasi di kota Yogyakarta yang terwujud dalam pembangunan hotel berbintang. Penelitian dilakukan melalui metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gentrifikasi muncul karena proses desentralisasi tata pemerintahan. Desentralisasi membuat reformasi di sektor perizinan dan memicu kekosongan dalam kebijakan spasial yang memfasilitasi laju investasi hotel. Akibatnya, jumlah hotel meningkat pesat, terutama di kecamatan yang sering dikunjungi seperti Gedongtengen atau lebih akrab dikenal sebagai kawasan Malioboro. Ketika gentrifikasi sedang berlangsung, dampak yang paling jelas terlihat ialah pembaruan ruang  di daerah kumuh. Akan tetapi, pembaruan ruang selama gentrifikasi telah memicu proses displacement, yang berakibat pada menurunya kondisi ekonomi penghuni sebelumnya, menghilangkan perumahan murah dalam sistem tradisional, dan menciptakan konflik. Peluang kerja yang dijanjikan akan tersedia ketika gentrifikasi berlangsung, pada kenyataanya susah untuk diakses. Kondisi demikian memberikan pemahaman bahwa gentrifikasi di Gedongtengen cenderung berdampak negatif, sehingga temuan ini memperkuat teori dampak gentrifiask temuan Atkinson (2004).

Keywords

Gentrifikasi, Dampak Pembangunan Hotel, Desentralisasi , Malioboro

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