PARTISIPASI KERJA PENYANDANG DISABILITAS: KETERKAITAN FAKTOR INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL

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Nurul Solikha Nofiani
M. Tahir Kasnawi
Hasbi Hasbi

Abstract

Kajian literatur ini bertujuan untuk menyajikan karakteristik pekerja disabilitas berdasarkan karakteristik sosial ekonomi, kesenjangan partisipasi kerja antar disabilitas dan non-disabilitas serta keterkaitan antara faktor internal dan eksternal terhadap partisipasi kerja penyandang disabilitas di Indonesia dan keterbandingannya secara global. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan Literature Review dengan melakukan telaah mendalam pada penelitian yang telah ada, buku, laporan tertulis dari pemerintah dan organisasi internasional serta berita di media massa. Data BPS menunjukkan bahwa penyandang disabilitas laki-laki, tinggal di daerah perdesaan, memiliki tingkat keparahan sedang dan mengalami gangguan penglihatan lebih banyak berpartisipasi dalam pasar tenaga kerja Indonesia. Mayoritas dari mereka bekerja di bidang pertanian, sektor informal dengan upah di bawah 2 juta rupiah. Namun, sebaliknya pekerja nondisabilitas mayoritas bekerja di bidang perdagangan dan jasa dengan upah di atas 2 juta rupiah. Menariknya, tingkat pengangguran disabilitas Indonesia jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan negara berpenghasilan rendah maupun tinggi. Penyebab kesenjangan partisipasi kerja ini dibagi menjadi dua, yakni: (1) faktor internal, seperti faktor sosio-demografi, faktor psikologis dan psikososial, jenis kesulitan/gangguan, tingkat keparahan disabilitas, serta kualitas pekerja yang dilihat dari pendidikan, keterampilan dan keahlian; dan (2) faktor eksternal, seperti diskriminasi dari pemberi kerja, kompleksitas jenis pekerjaan, produktivitas kerja, serta minimnya akomodasi, sarana dan prasarana khusus untuk pekerja disabilitas. Peran pemerintah, pihak swasta dan pekerja sosial sangat dibutuhkan dalam mengurangi kesenjangan antar pekerja.

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References

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