TERAPI ROBOT BAGI LANJUT USIA YANG MENGALAMI DEMENSIA

Mu'man Nuryana
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33007/inf.v6i2.2339
Abstract views: 143 | views : 48

Abstract

Sektor kesehatan dan kesejahteraan menghadapi tantangan menarik. Pertama, pesatnya penuaan penduduk diiringi penurunan jumlah pengasuh yang berimplikasi pada pengasuhan lanjut usia. Kedua, munculnya kesadaran baru pada terapi hewan yang berpotensi risiko penularan zonosis, isu etika dan moral, perspektif budaya dan agama, sejarah dan keraguan. Ketiga, pesatnya perkembangan teknologi robotik dan kecerdasan buatan dalam menyikapi isu pengasuhan. Kondisi ini membawa implikasi pada alokasi sumber daya manusia dan dampaknya terhadap stabilitas pengiriman pengasuhan. Tinjauan pustaka ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manfaat sosial, psikologis, fisiologis, dan klinis dari Paro, robot bantuan-sosial paling populer di dunia, dalam pengasuhan lanjut usia. Paro membentuk perilaku hewani dan menanggapi cahaya, suhu, suara, sentuhan dan postur sejalan dengan perputaran waktu. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan di negara-negara maju menunjukkan bahwa Paro mendorong lanjut usia yang mengalami demensia untuk berkomunikasi di antara mereka dan memperkuat hubungan sosial individual, mempengaruhi hubungan, dan membantu mengatasi kesepian. Selain menurunkan stres dan kecemasan, Paro juga mampu menurunkan penggunaan pengobatan psikoaktif dan sakit medis pada klien demensia, dan efektif dalam intervensi terapeutik. Namun harganya mahal, hanya fasilitas pengasuhan sosial tertentu yang bisa mengaksesnya. Mengingat pengaruh positif, penggunaan Paro dengan menyertakan pengasuh bisa memperluas jangkauan terapeutik. Ada potensi untuk menggunakan Paro sebagai companion robot dalam pengasuhan lanjut usia dalam setting panti sosial, rumah sakit, keluarga dan komunitas. Nampaknya, intervensi robotik sedang mengalami pergeseran dari terapi bantuan-hewan menuju pengembangan cara-cara inovatif yang menghubungkan robot dengan lanjut usia. 

Keywords

lanjut usia; demensia; terapi robot

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