Gentrifikasi: Dampak Sosial-Ekonomi Pembangunan Hotel di Malioboro Kota Yogyakarta

Hardian Wahyu Widianto, Yeremias Torontuan Keban

Abstract

Gentrifikasi atau pembangunan properti secara masif yang khusus ditujukan hanya untuk pekerja kerah putih atau untuk fungsi komersial seperti apartemen dan hotel telah memicu perlawanan publik di Yogyakarta. Sebagai masalah urban kontemporer, sayangnya dampak gentrifikasi belum diteliti secara mendalam di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisi celah tersebut dengan menganalisis studi kasus gentrifikasi di Kota Yogyakarta yang tercermin lewat masifnya pembangunan hotel berbintang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa kemunculan gentrifikasi di Kota Yogyakarta dipicu oleh reformasi sektor perizinan dan kekosongan kebijakan pengelolaan tata ruang yang terjadi akibat proses desentralisasi. Hal ini dapat terlihat lewat peningkatan jumlah hotel di kawasan yang dekat obyek wisata seperti halnya kawasan Malioboro. Dampak paling menonjol dari gentrifikasi adalah pembaruan ruang di daerah kumuh. Akan tetapi pembaruan ruang sebenarnya menciptakan proses displacement yang memiliki berbagai dampak negatif berupa penurunan kondisi ekonomi penghuni sebelumnya, hilangnya perumahan murah dalam sistem tradisional, dan terciptanya konflik sosial. Selain itu, peluang kerja yang dijanjikan yang akan datang bersama gentrifikasi, pada kenyataanya susah untuk diakses oleh masyarakat. Berbagai temuan ini mengarah pada kesimpulan bahwa gentrifikasi yang berlangsung di kawasan Malioboro cenderung berdampak negatif. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan bahwa pemerintah perlu mencabut Izin Mendirikan Bangunan (IMB) dari hotel ketika dampak-dampak negatif gentrifikasi muncul. IMB hanya dapat diterbitkan kembali jika pemohon telah memberikan ganti rugi yang mencukupi kepada korban gentrifikasi.

Keywords

Gentrifikasi, Dampak Pembangunan Hotel, Desentralisasi , Malioboro

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